Charles II belonged to the House of Stuart
. Born in 1630, he ascended to the throne in 1660 and died in 1685. He was preceded as monarch by Charles I
and was succeeded by James II
Charles played little part in the Civil War until after the death of his father. He was sent abroad, but returned to be crowned at Scone, Scotland, on January 1, 1651. In the following August, at the head of an army of 10,000, he invaded England, only to be trounced by Cromwell at Worcester Park. He escaped to the Continet, but was recalled to the throne of his father, landing at Dover on May 26, 1660.
From the Restoration to Charles' death in 1685, his aim was not to be forced into exile again. His chief foreign policy was to earn the subsidies which the King of France was willing to pay to ensure England's neutrality. In domestic policy, his reign was marked by a growing conflict between the city and country parties.