By 1688, James II
had made himself thoroughly unpopular with many segments of English society. His rule was tolerated, however, with the understanding that after him, the throne would pass to his daughter Mary, a Protestant. However, in that year James' wife gave birth to a son, raising the prospect of permanent Catholic rule. A group of leading politicians invited Mary and her husband, William of Orange, to reign in England. William invaded England with an army in November and James fled to France. William and Mary
ascended jointly to the throne.
This change of monarch became known as the Glorious Revolution. As a result, Parliament placed limits on the power of the throne. Catholics were barred from becoming monarchs. It also became illegal for a monarch to keep an army, or levy taxes without the consent of Parliament.