Conducted in 1832, the Black Hawk War ended armed Indian resistance north of the Ohio River
and east of the Mississippi River
. An 1804 treaty of questionable validity had decreed that the Sac and Fox Indians would move west of the Mississippi from their homes in present day Illinois. Some resisted. After the War of 1812
, this resistance began to center around Black Hawk, an Indian leader who denounced the treaty.
In 1831, the whites forced a new treaty on Black Hawk, but the following spring, he returned with 400 braves. After fighting in Illinois, he fled to present day Wisconsin. The final battle took place at Bad Axe River, where most of his band were killed.