Old Harbor is located in Kodiak Island Borough on the southeast coast of Kodiak Island. The area around Old Harbor is thought to have been inhabited by Sugpiaq Eskimos for nearly 2,000 years. In 1964, the Good Friday earthquake and resulting tsunami destroyed the community - only two homes and the church remained standing. The community has since rebuilt in the same location.
Many of the residents are commercial fishermen. Residents of Kaguyak, a summer fish camp nearby, also live in Old Harbor.