Edward III belonged to the Plantagenet Dynasty. Born in 1312, he ascended to the throne in 1327 and died in 1377. He was preceded as monarch by Edward II and was succeeded by Richard II.
Gaining the throne in 1327, Edward was dominated during his minority by Mortimer and Isabella, his father's widow. Early in 1328, the king married Philippa of Hainault and two years later executed Mortimer and banished his mother. He then invaded Scotland. Initially successful in placing Edward Balliol at the head of Scotland's government, Edward then saw his king driven from the country and three attempts to restore him failed.
In 1346, accompanied by his son, the Black Prince, he conquered much of Normandy and crushed the French at Crecy. In 1355, he renewed his war with France with disastrous results. Despite a brilliant victory by the Black Prince at Poitiers in 1356, Edward subsequently lost most English possessions in France. His final years were miserable. His queen died in 1369, the Black Prince in 1376, and the king in 1377.