Henry III belonged to the Plantagenet Dynasty
. Born in 1207, he ascended to the throne in 1216 and died in 1272. He was preceded as monarch by King John
and was succeeded by Edward I
Henry was the eldest son of John and Isabella. He was born Winchester and was crowned on October 23, 1216. As Henry was only a child, England was governed until 1232 by ministers.
Henry was pious but wanting in energy and irresolute. In 1236, Henry married Eleanor of Provence and a host of Provencals invaded England. Opposition by the barons and the clergy grew more pronounced. Papal exactions, Henry's failures in France (1242-1243), and the rapacity of sheriffs increased dissatisfaction. In 1258, a Parliament, known as the "Mad Parliament," was called to Oxford. Simon de Montfort became one of their leaders. The Provisions of Oxford were drawn up inaugurating a period of reform. Called to arbitrate, Louis IX of France annulled the provisions in 1264. War broke out. Simon was defeated and killed by the Black Prince.