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Henry III

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Henry III belonged to the Plantagenet Dynasty. Born in 1207, he ascended to the throne in 1216 and died in 1272. He was preceded as monarch by King John and was succeeded by Edward I.

Henry was the eldest son of John and Isabella. He was born Winchester and was crowned on October 23, 1216. As Henry was only a child, England was governed until 1232 by ministers.

Henry was pious but wanting in energy and irresolute. In 1236, Henry married Eleanor of Provence and a host of Provencals invaded England. Opposition by the barons and the clergy grew more pronounced. Papal exactions, Henry's failures in France (1242-1243), and the rapacity of sheriffs increased dissatisfaction. In 1258, a Parliament, known as the "Mad Parliament," was called to Oxford. Simon de Montfort became one of their leaders. The Provisions of Oxford were drawn up inaugurating a period of reform. Called to arbitrate, Louis IX of France annulled the provisions in 1264. War broke out. Simon was defeated and killed by the Black Prince.

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