Richard I belonged to the Plantagenet Dynasty. Born in 1157, he ascended to the throne in 1189 and died in 1199. He was preceded as monarch by Henry II and was succeeded by King John.
Born in Oxford, son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, Richard was made Duke of Aquitaine in 1169. Twice he rose against his father before succeeding him as king of England in 1189, when he also became Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou. In the year he became king, he led 8000 men and a fleet of 300 ships on the Third Crusade. The result was a treaty with the Arab leader Saladin that gave Christians access to the Sepulcher.
On his return journey, Richard was taken captive by his enemy Leopold I of Austria in 1192, then becoming the prisoner of Henry VI, emperor of Germany. His ransom was finally paid by Hubert Walter, archbishop of Canterbury and justiciar of England. His younger brother John conspired with Philip Augustus during and after Richard's imprisonment. Richard died of an arrow wound.