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Richard II

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Richard II belonged to the Plantagenet Dynasty. Born in 1367, he ascended to the throne in 1377 and died in 1400. He was preceded as monarch by Edward III and was succeeded by Henry IV.

Richard's father was the Black Prince, who was the heir apparent but died before his father. As a result, Richard ascended the throne in 1377. On the death of his mother in 1385, Richard came under the influence of Michael de la Pole, earl of Suffolk, and Robert de Vere, earl of Oxford. Several leading nobles styled themselves the "lords appellant" and overthrew the king's friends. In 1389, however, Richard resumed the government. There was a period of peace until 1397, when Richard banished several of his opponents and asserted his authority over Parliament.

In 1399, on the death of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, Richard made the mistake of first seizing the late duke's estates and then taking a trip to Ireland. While absent, John of Gaunt's heir, Henry Bolingbroke, returned from exile, challenged and deposed Richard.

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