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Hertfordshire, also known as Herts, is an inland county of England, bounded on the north by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire, on the east by Essex, on the south by Middlesex, and on the west by Buckinghamshire. It covers an area of 632 square miles.

The surface of the shire is undulating, traversed by chalk ridges continuous with the Chiltern Hills and the East Anglian Heights. Hertfordshire is drained by the Colne, Stort, and Lea rivers. New River, an artificial channel constructed to supply North London with water, is fed by springs at Amwell and Chadwell. Branches of the Grand Junction Canal afford water communication.

Hertfordshire is primarily agricultural. The Vale of St Albans, extending centrally through the county, has grain, orchard and berry farms. The most important towns are Hertford, the county town, St Albans, Watford, Letchworth, and Hitchin.