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Northumberland is a county in northeast England, bounded on the north by Scotland and the Cheviot Hills, on the east by the North Sea, on the south by Durham, and southwest by Cumberland. The area is 2018 square miles.

The coasts are low, in part sandy, in part bordered by cliffs. Offshore are Holy Island or Lindisfarne, the Farne group, Coquet and St Mary's. The high land lies chiefly in the north and west in the Cheviot Hills and the northern Pennine Mountains. The central part of the county is a region of high moors.

The principal rivers are the Tweed along with the Till, Aln, Coquet, Tyne, Rede, and Derwent. The Tyne ports, particularly Newcastle Upon Tyne, have been great export centers for coal for many years.

The Great Wall, 7miles long, constructed by the Romans between Wallsend and Bowness, lies north of the Four Dykes. In the sixth century, Northumberland was conquered and colonized by the Angles. It then formed part of the kingdom of Bernicia, and later Northumbria.