Topeka, the State Capital, is located in Shawnee County and it is the county seat. It lies at the Interstate 70 and 335 junction between Lawrence and Salina on the banks of the Kansas River. The city also is near Potawatomi Indian Reservation and Perry Lake.
A ferry was established here in 1842, on the Oregon Trail. The city was established in 1854 by nine antislavery settlers from Lawrence and New England. In 1861, Topeka was selected state capital following Kansas' admittance to the Union.
From its inception, Topeka, population now 123,993, has played a major role in Kansas government, transportation and health care. The city enjoys four distinct seasons. The average daily temperature in January is 27 degrees; in July it is 79 degrees. Attractions include the Brown Vs. Board of Education National Historic Site, Tiffany Windows of the First Presbyterian Church, and the State Capitol complex. Topeka holds a festival every month except February.