Halifax was founded in 1760, located in Halifax County
(of which it is the county seat) between Roanoke Rapids
and Rocky Mount
along US Highway 301 on the south bank of the Roanoke River near Weldon
. Falls and rapids were just upriver, making Halifax the head of river navigation. With these advantages, the small town became a trading center and river port for goods moving between the backcountry, the plantations, and Virginia. The population estimate for July 1, 1998 was 307, a decrease of 20 since 1990.