Littlefield is located northwest of Lubbock toward Muleshoe on US 84 and US 385, where it is the seat of Lamb County.
It was named for George W. Littlefield, who divided his Yellow House Ranch and formed a land company when surveys showed that the new Santa Fe line from Coleman to Texico, New Mexico, would pass through his land. In 1913 the site became a station on the Panhandle and Santa Fe Railway, and a school, supported for several years by the Littlefield Land Company, was established.
Littlefield was incorporated in 1924, and by 1930 it had a population of 3,500, grain elevators, gins, a compress, and cottonseed oil mills.
In the 1980s a textile mill became an important industry in the community. In 1991 Littlefield reported a population of 6,587 and 201 businesses.