Quanah is located northwest of Wichita Falls between Vernon and Childress on US 287 between the Red and Pease Rivers, in Hardeman County.
It was named after Quanah Parker, the last great war chief of the Comanche Indians.
Manufacturers in 1980 included a gypsum plant for wallboard, a cottonseed oil mill, and a sheet metal works. Quanah's economic position as a shipping center for cattle, cotton, wheat, oats, and barley was improved with the discovery of the Conley oilfield southwest of town in 1959.
Some eighty businesses served the community in the 1980s. In 1991 the population was 3,721.