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This county in southern England contains Windsor Castle, and is known as the "royal county." It is south of the Thames and is bounded on the north by Oxfordshire, on the south by Hampshire, on the west by Wiltshire, and on the east by Middlesex.

The surface is generally undulating and wooded. The principal hills are the Berkshire Downs, or White Horse Hills. The county is drained by the Thames, Ock, Kennet, Cole, Lambourn, and Pang rivers.

Berkshire was the scene of wars between Alfred and the Danes in the 9th century and played an important role in the Civil Wars from the reign of Stephen to the death of Charles I.

Reading is the county town. Wallingford and Kintbury are also manufacturing centers.