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Ontario is Canada's most populous province and is second in size only to Quebec. It contains the nation's most populous city, Toronto, as well as the national capital, Ottawa. It is also preeminent in manufacturing and has great agricultural and mining production as well.

Ontario is bounded on the west by Manitoba and on the east by Quebec. Its long border with the United States brings it in contact with New York, Michigan, and Minnesota. Its borders run through the waters of four of the Great Lakes: Lake Superior, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario.

Most of the population, manufacturing, and agriculture is concentrated in the Great Lakes Lowland. Northern Ontario has rich mines, but the soil is poor and the weather harsh. Oceangoing ships use the St. Lawrence Seaway to reach the Great Lakes ports of Ontario.